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Here you can find common Japanese phrases among other things


Numbers

To start off with, let us count numbers. The following are Japanese numbers with a Chinese origin.


O - Zero/Rei
1 - Ichi
2 - Ni
3 - San
4 - Yon/Shi
5 - Go
6 - Roku
7 - Nana/Shichi
8 - Hachi
9 - Kyuu/Ku
10 - Juu

For numbers 11 up to 19(also works for the others such as 21-29 and so on), you take the number 10(Juu) and place the corresponding number after it, so for 11, you would have Juu followed by Ichi, for Juuichi(11). In which for other numbers such as 4(Yon/Shi), 7(Nana/Shichi), and 9(Kyuu/Ku) the latter is used, 4(Shi), 7(Shichi), and 9(Ku).

11 - Juuichi
12 - Juuni
13 - Juusan
14 - Juushi
15 - Juugo
16 - Juuroku
17 - Juushichi
18 - Juuhachi
19 - Juuku

For numbers such as 20, 30, 40, and so on up to 90 you take the primary number such as Ni(2) and place it before Juu(10) which gives you Nijuu(20), the same would go for San(3) and Juu(10) for Sanjuu(30) and so on and so forth. To make numbers such as 21 through 29 or others of that sort, take the number like Nijuu(20) and to make it 21 add Ichi(1) to the end to become Nijuuichi(21). And for the numbers 4(Yon/Shi), 7(Nana/Shichi), and 9(Kyuu/Ku) the latter is still used. For the numbers 40, 70, and 90, use the former(Yon,Nana, and Kyuu) followed by the Juu to make them.


20 - Nijuu
21 - Nijuuichi
22 - Nijuuni
23 - Nijuusan

30 - Sanjuu
31 - Sanjuuichi
32 - Sanjuuni
33 - Sanjuusan

40 - Yonjuu
41 - Yonjuuichi
42 - Yonjuuni
43 - Yonjuusan

50 - Gojuu
51 - Gojuuichi
52 - Gojuuni
53 - Gojuusan

60 - Rokujuu
61 - Rokujuuichi
62 - Rokujuuni
63 - Rokujuusan

70 - Nanajuu
71 - Nanajuuichi
72 - Nanajuuni
73 - Nanajuusan

80 - Hachijuu
81 - Hachijuuichi
82 - Hachijuuni
83 - Hachijuusan

90 - Kyuujuu
91 - Kyuujuuichi
92 - Kyuujuuni
93 - Kyuujuusan

100 - Hyaku
101 - Hyakuichi
110 - Hyakujuu
111 - Hyakuujuuichi

150 - Hyakuugojuu
200 - Nihyaku
300 - Sanbyaku

Note: Only 300 has the change from Hyaku to Byaku to my knowledge, so it might be different. But all of my sources say only 300.

1000 - Sen
1500 - Sengohyaku
2000 - Nisen

10,000 - Ichiman
100,000 - Juuman

1,000,000 - Hyakuman
10,000,000 - Senman
100,000,000 - Ichioku


Iro(colors)
Sukina iro wa nan desu ka(What is your favorite color?)

Ao - Blue
Aka - Red
Chairo - Brown
Daidiiro - Orange
Hiiro - Gray
Kiiro - Yellow
Kimidori - Light Green
Kuro - Black
Midori - Green
Mizuiro - Light Blue
Momoiro - Pink
Murasaki - Purple
Shiro - White

Useful Expressions
Nihongo o hanashimasu ka(Do you speak Japanese?)
Useful phrases and common terms

Hai - Yes
Lie - No
Sumimasen - Excuse Me
Doumo - Thanks
Arigatou Gozaimasu - Thank you
Dou itashimashite - You are welcome
Hai, sukoshi - Yes, a little
Wakarimasu Ka - Do you understand?
Wakarimasen - I do not understand
Shirimasen - I don’t know
Nihongo de non to iimasu ka - How do you say it in Japanese?
Dou iu imi desu ka - What does it mean?
Kore wa nan desu ka - What is it?
Yukurri Hanashite Kudasai - Please Speak Slowly
Mou ichido itte kudasai - Please say it again
lie, kekkou desu - No thanks
Daijoubo Desu - It is alright

Nani - What?
Doko - Where
Dare - Who
Itsu - When
Dore - Which
Ikura - How much


Months
New names(first) and then Old(last)(and the meanings too).


January - Ichigatsu - Mutsuki
February - Nigatsu - Kisaragi
March - Sangatsu - Yayoi
April - Shigatsu - Uzuki
May - Gogatsu - Satsuki
June - Rokugatsu - Minazuki
July - Shichigatsu - Fumizuki
August - Hachigatsu - Hazuki
September - Kugatsu - Nagatsuki
October - Juugatsu - Kannazuki
November - Juuichigatsu - Shimotsuki
December - Juunigatsu - Shiwasu

Mutsuki - Month of Harmony
Kisaragi - Month of wearing extra layers of clothes
Yayoi - Month of Growth
Uzuki - Month of Deutzia(Unohana)
Satsuki - Month of planting rice sprouts
Minazuki - Month of no Water
Fumizuki - Month of literary
Hazuki - Month of leaves
Nagatsuki - Autumn long month
Kannazuki - Month of no gods
Shimotsuki - Month of frost
Shiwasu - Month of running priests

Most of this information is taken from here.
(0.0445/d/web8)